Working of trains generally

(Extract from IR General Rules : Chapter 4)



CHAPTER IV

WORKING OF TRAINS GENERALLY

A. Timing and Running of Trains

      4.01. Standard time

            The working of trains between stations shall be regulated by
            the standard time prescribed by the Government of India, which
            shall be transmitted daily to all the principal stations of the
            railway at 1600 hours in the manner prescribed.

      4.02. Adherence to advertised time

            No passenger train or mixed train shall be despatched from a
            station before the advertised time.

      4.03. Setting watch

            Before a train starts from a terminal or crew-changing station,
            the Guard shall set his watch by the station clock or the clock
            at the authorised place of reporting for duty and communicate
            the time to the Driver who shall set his watch accordingly.

      4.04. Time of attendance for train crew

            Every Guard, Driver, Assistant Driver or Fireman shall be in
            attendance for duty at such place and at such time as maybe
            prescribed by special instructions.

      4.05. Proper running line

            The Driver shall take his train along the proper running line.

      4.06. Direction of running

            (1) On a double line, every train shall run on the left hand
            line unless otherwise prescribed by special instructions.

            (2) If there are two or more parallel lines, the direction in
            which trains are to run on each line shall be prescribed by
            special instructions.

      4.07. Supply of Working Time Table and Schedule of Standard
      Dimensions

            (1) A copy of the Working Time Table for the time being in
            force shall be supplied to each station, Guard, Driver,
            Inspector of Way or Works, and any other railway servant
            requiring the use of the Working Time Table during the course
            of his duties.

            (2) A copy of the Working Time Table shall, on issue, be
            supplied to the Commissioner of Railway Safety.

            (3) A copy of the Schedule of Standard Dimensions for the time
            being in force shall be supplied to each Inspector of Way or
            Works and Train Examiner.

B. Speed of Trains

      4.08. Limits of speed generally

            (1) (a) Every train shall be run on each section of the railway
            within the limits of speed sanctioned for that section by
            approved special instructions.

            (b) The sectional speed sanctioned and permanent speed
            restrictions shall be shown in the Working Time Table.

            (2) The Driver Shall:

                (a) regulate and control the running of the train according
                to the Working Time Table, so as to avoid either excessive
                speed or loss of time, and

                (b) not make up between any two stations more time than is
                allowed in this behalf in the Working Time Table, and shall
                also observe all speed restrictions.

            (3) When it is necessary to indicate to the Driver where trains
            are to run at a restricted speed or when trains have to come to
            a stop due to the line being under repairs or due to any other
            obstructions, action shall be taken as specified in Rule 15.09.

      4.09. Caution Order

            (1) Whenever, in consequence of the line being under repair or
            for any other reason, special precaution are necessary, a
            Caution Order detailing the kilometers between which such
            precautions are necessary, the reasons for taking such
            precautions, and the speed at which a train shall travel, shall
            be handed over to the Driver at the stopping station
            immediately short of the place where such precautions are
            necessary, or at such other stations and in such manner, as
            prescribed under special instructions.

            (2) Sub-rule(1) does not apply in the case of long continued
            repairs when fixed signals are provided at an adequate distance
            short of such place and have been notified to the running staff
            concerned.

            (3) The Caution Order referred to in sub-rule (1) shall be on
            green paper, both faces being green , and be made out and
            signed in full : Provided that as a temporary measure the
            Caution Order may be on white paper with a green band running
            diagonally across the form.

      4.10 Limits of speed over facing points

            (1) The speed of trains over non-interlocked facing points
            shall not exceed 15 kilometers an hour in any circumstances,
            and the speed over turn-outs and cross-overs shall not exceed
            15 kilometers an hour unless otherwise prescribed by approved
            special instructions, which may permit a higher speed.

            (2) Subject to the provisions of sub-rule (1), a train may run
            over interlocked facing points at such speed as may be
            permitted by the standard of interlocking.

      4.11. Limits of speed while running through stations

            (1) No train shall run through an interlocked station at a
            speed exceeding 50 kilometers an hour, or such less speed as
            may be prescribed by approved special instructions unless the
            line on which the train is to run has been isolated from all
            other lines by the setting of points or other approved means,
            and interlocking is such as to maintain this condition during
            the passage of the train.

            (2) In every case in which trains are permitted to run through
            on a non-isolated line, all shunting shall be stopped and no
            vehicle unattached to an engine or not properly secured in
            accordance with Rule 5.23 may be kept standing on a connected
            line which is not isolated from the through line.

      4.12 Engine pushing

            (1) No engine or self-propelled vehicle shall push any train
            outside station limits except in accordance with special
            instructions and at a speed not exceeding 25 kilometers an hour
            

                Provided that this sub-rule shall not apply to an engine
                assisting in rear of a train, which may be permitted under
                approved special instructions to run without being coupled
                to the train:

                Provided further that no train which is not equipped with
                continuous vacuum brake shall be pushed outside station
                limits except in case of emergency.

                Provided also that a "Patrol" or "Search-light" special
                with one or more vehicle in front of the engine may be
                permitted to run at a maximum speed of 40 kilometers an
                hour.

            (2) For movement of trains outside station limits with engine
            pushing during night or in thick, foggy or tempestuous weather
            impairing visibility or where otherwise prescribed by special
            instructions, the leading vehicle of such trains shall be
            equipped with the prescribed head light and marker lights
            except in case of emergency.

            (3) When trains are worked as described in sub-rules (1) and (2), 
            the engine pushing the load when it is the rearmost, or
            the rearmost vehicle if any, shall carry a tail board or a tail
            lamp.

      4.13. Limits of speed with engine tender foremost

            (1) (a) A passenger train or a mixed train shall not be drawn
            outside station limits by a steam engine running tender
            foremost, except

                    (i) under a written order issued by the authorised
                    officer; or

                    (ii) in a case of unavoidable necessity, to be
                    established by the Driver.

                (b) When any such train is so drawn, the speed shall not exceed
                25 kilometers an hour, or such higher speed, not exceeding 40
                kilometers an hour, as may be authorised

            (2) In case of unavoidable necessity, goods trains may run with
            steam engines tender foremost at a speed not exceeding 25
            kilometers an hour or such higher speed, which shall, in no
            circumstances, exceed 40kilometers an hour, as may be laid down
            by special instructions.

            (3) When trains have to be worked with steam engines tender
            foremost as a regular measure under sub-clause (i) of clause
            (a) of sub-rule (1) and sub-rule (2), the head light and marker
            lights as prescribed in Rule 4.14 shall be provided on the
            tender.

C. Equipment of Trains and Train Crew

      4.14. Head light and marker lights
            
            (1) A train shall not be worked at night or in thick, foggy or
            tempestuous weather impairing visibility or in long tunnels,
            unless the engine carries an electric head light of an approved
            design and, in addition, two oil or electric white marker
            lights.

            (2) An engine employed exclusively on shunting at stations and
            yards shall, at night or during thick, foggy or tempestuous
            weather impairing visibility, display such head lights as are
            prescribed by the Railway Administration, and exhibit two red
            marker lights in front and in rear.

            (3) The electric head light on the engine shall be fitted with
            a switch to dim the light and shall be dimmed
            
                  (a) when the train remains stationary at a station;

                  (b) when the train is approaching another train which is
                  running in opposite direction on double or multiple track
                  of same or different gauges; and

                  (c) on such other occasions as may be prescribed by
                  special instructions.

            (4) In case the electric head light fails or a train has to be
            worked with the engine running tender foremost in an emergency,
            the engine shall display the two oil or electric white marker
            lights referred to in sub-rule (1) pointing in the direction of
            movement and the train shall run at a speed prescribed by
            special instructions.

      4.15. Tail and side lights

            (1) At night or in thick, foggy or tempestuous weather
            impairing visibility, no train shall be worked outside station
            limits unless it has

                  (a) in the case of an engine with vehicles attached, save
                  in a case to which sub-rule (2) applies, at least one red
                  tail light, and two side lights showing red towards the
                  rear and white towards the engine

                       Provided that in case of emergency, provision of
                       side lights on goods trains may be dispensed with
                       under special instructions;

                  (b) in the case of a single engine without vehicles
                  attached at least one red trail light; and

                  (c) in the case of two or more engines coupled together
                  without vehicles attached, at least one red tail light
                  affixed to the rear engine.

            (2) A colliery pilot, i.e., a train used for collecting or
            distributing vehicles in colliery sidings, when working in a
            block section or in the colliery sidings taking off from a
            block section, need carry a red tail light only as it enters or
            leaves the block station, at either end of such block section,
            provided that special instructions are issued to ensure that no
            other train is permitted to proceed into the block section
            until the Guard of the colliery pilot has certified that he has
            left no vehicle obstructing the block section in which he has
            been working.

            (3) When train may run in the same direction on parallel lines,
            the side lights mentioned in clause (a) of sub-rule (1) may be
            arranged in accordance with special instructions.

            (4) When a train has been shunted for a following train to
            pass, the tail and side lights mentioned in clause (a) of
            sub-rule (1) shall be dealt with in accordance with special
            instructions.

            (5) Within station limits or in a siding, an engine employed in
            shunting shall have tail lights in accordance with special
            instructions.

      4.16. Tail board or tail lamp

            (1) In order to indicate to the staff that a train is complete,
            the last vehicle shall, except as provided for in sub-rule (2),
            be distinguished by affixing to the rear of it

                  (a) by day, a tail board of approved design or a red
                  painted tail lamp of approved design which may be unlit,
                  or

                  (b) by night, as well as in thick, foggy or tempestuous
                  weather impairing visibility during day, a red tail lamp
                  of approved design which shall be lit, or

                  (c) such other device as may be authorised by special
                  instructions.

            (2) A colliery pilot, i.e., a train used for collecting or
            distributing vehicles in colliery sidings, when working in a
            block section or in the colliery sidings taking off from a
            block section, need carry a tail board or tail lamp, or such
            other device as may be authorised by special instructions, only
            as it enters or leaves the block station at either end of such
            block section, provided that special instructions are issued to
            ensure that no other train is permitted to proceed into the
            block section until the Guard of the colliery pilot certifies
            that he has left no vehicle obstructing the block section in
            which he has been working.

            (3) In emergencies only, and under special instructions in each
            case, a red flag may be used in lieu of a tail board or an
            unlit tail lamp.

      4.17 Responsibility of Station Master regarding tail board or tail
      lamp of passing trains

            (1) The Station Master shall see that the last vehicle of every
            train passing through his station is provided with a tail board
            or tail lamp or such other device in accordance with the
            provisions of Rule 4.16.

            (2) If a train passes the station without such indication to
            show that it is complete, the Station Master shall -

                (a) immediately advise the station in advance to stop the train
                to see that the defect is remedied and to advise whether or not
                the train is complete.

                (b) meanwhile withhold the closing of the block section to
                ensure that no train is allowed to enter the block section from
                the station in rear, and

                (c) unless the station in advance has advised that the train is
                complete, neither consider the block section in rear as clear
                nor close it.

      4.18. Means of communication

            (1) No passenger train or mixed train shall be despatched from
            any station, unless every passenger carriage is provided with
            means by which communication can be made with the Guard or the
            Driver.

            (2) Sub-rule (1) shall not apply to:

                  (a) passenger or mixed trains in case of complete or
                  partial failure of vacuum; and

                  (b) such particular trains as may be exempted under
                  approved special instructions.

            (3) If a Railway Administration is satisfied that mischievous
            use of the means of communication referred to in sub-rule (1)
            is prevalent, it may, notwithstanding anything contained in
            that sub-rule, direct the disconnection, for the time being, of
            the means of communication provided in all or any of the
            passenger carriages in any such train.

            (4) A goods vehicle in which passengers are carried is not a
            "passenger carriage" within the meaning of this rule.

      4.19 Guard's and Driver's equipment

            (1) Each Guard and Driver shall have with him, while on duty
            with his train, the following equipment

                  (a) a copy of these rules or such portions thereof as
                  have been supplied to him under Rule 2.01.

                  (b) a copy of the Working Time Table, and all correction
                  slips and appendices, if any, in force on that section of
                  the railway over which the train is to run.

                  (c) a hand signal lamp,

                  (d) a whistle (for Guards only),

                  (e) a red flag and a green flag,

                  (f) a stock of detonators sufficient to comply with the
                  relevant rules as may be prescribed by special
                  instructions,

                  (g) a first aid box (for Guards of passenger carrying
                  trains only), and

                  (h) such other articles as may be prescribed by the
                  Railway Administration in this behalf.

            (2) If any Guard or Driver is not in possession of any article
            mentioned or referred to in sub-rule (1), he shall report the
            fact to his superior who shall make good the deficiency.

            (3) Each Guard and Driver shall have with him while on duty
            with his train, two pairs of such spectacles as he is required
            to wear under medical advice.

            Note: Each Guard and Driver should also be in possession of a
            watch in addition to the equipment prescribed in sub-rule (1).

      4.20 Manning of engine in motion

            (1) Except when otherwise provided by special instructions, no
            engine shall be allowed to be in motion on any running line
            unless the Driver as also the Assistant Driver or the Fireman
            are upon it.

            (2) Subject to the provision of sub-rule (3), in no
            circumstances shall a person other than the Driver or a railway
            servant duly qualified in all respects, drive an engine on any
            running line.

            (3) If a Driver becomes incapacitated while the engine is in
            motion, the Assistant Driver or the Fireman, if duly qualified,
            may work the train to the next station cautiously and where the
            Assistant Driver or the Fireman is not duly qualified, he shall
            bring the train to a stop and send a message to the Station
            master of the nearest station to make arrangements for a Driver
            to take over the train, and for so doing he may take the
            assistance of the Guard.

      4.21. Driving an electric train

            (1) In the case of electric trains, the Driver shall be in the
            leading driving compartment when the train is in motion or when
            the train is standing on any running line except as otherwise
            prescribed in these rules.

            (2) (a) In the case of a single or multiple unit train, if the
            driving apparatus in the leading driving compartment becomes
            defective, the trains shall be driven cautiously from the
            nearest driving compartment which is serviceable; in this
            event, the Guard shall travel in the leading driving
            compartment and shall convey the necessary signals to the
            Driver; the Guard shall also sound the horn or whistle as
            necessary and apply the rake in case of emergency and shall be
            responsible for stopping the train correctly at signals,
            stations and obstructions.

            (b) In the case of an electric engine, if the leading driving
            compartment becomes defective, the train shall be driven from
            the trailing driving compartment by the Assistant Driver if he
            is duly qualified to drive; and the Driver shall remain in the
            leading driving compartment, and shall be responsible for the
            correct operation of the train.

      4.22. Riding on engine or tender

            (1) No person other than the engine crew shall be authorised to
            ride on the engine or tender of a steam locomotive, except in
            accordance with special instructions.

            (2) Except as may be permitted by special instructions, no
            person other than the engine crew shall be authorised to enter
            any driving compartment of a single or multiple unit train or a
            train propelled by electric, diesel or petrol engine.

            (3) No unauthorized person shall manipulate any apparatus
            contained therein.

      4.23. Brake-vans

            (1) No train shall be allowed to enter a block section, unless
            one or more brake-vans or hand braked vehicles are attached to
            it, except in emergency or as provided for under special
            instructions.

            (2) This rule does not apply to rail cars, light engine or
            light engines coupled together.

      4.24. Position of brake-van on train

            Unless it be otherwise directed by special instructions, one
            brake-van shall be attached to the rear of the train, provided
            that reserved carriages or other vehicles may, under special
            instructions, be placed in rear of such brake-van.

      4.25 Guards

            (1) Except under special instructions or in an emergency, every
            running train shall be provided with one or more Guards.

            (2) The Guard of a running train shall travel in his brake-van except:

                  (a) in an emergency, or

                  (b) under special instructions

            (3) When a train is worked without a Guard, such of his duties
            as can be performed by the Driver, shall devolve on him as may
            be specified by special instructions.

      4.26. Couplings

            No vehicle that is not fitted with a coupling or couplings of
            approved pattern shall be attached to any train.

      D. Vehicles and Cranes

      4.27. Cranes

            (1) No travelling crane shall be attached to a train until it
            has been certified by a duly authorised person that it is in
            proper running order, and with a dummy truck for the jib, if
            necessary.

            (2) When a crane is to work on any line provided with electric
            traction or any line adjacent to it, the procedure and
            precautions as laid down under special instructions shall also
            be followed.

      4.28. Loading of vehicles

            (1) No wagon or truck shall be so loaded as to exceed the
            maximum gross load on the axle fixed under sub-section (3) of
            section 53 of the Act, or such less load, if any, as may have
            been prescribed by the Railway Administration.

            (2) Except under approved special instructions no vehicles
            shall be so loaded as to exceed the maximum moving dimension
            prescribed from time to time by the Railway Board.

            (3) When a load in a truck projects to an unsafe extent beyond
            the end of a truck, an additional truck shall be attached to
            act as a dummy.

            (4) The Guard shall, unless this duty is by special
            instructions imposed on some other railway servant, carefully
            examine the load of any open truck which may be attached to the
            train, and if any such load has shifted or requires adjustment,
            shall have the load made secure or the truck removed from the
            train.

      4.29. Damaged or defective vehicles

            (1) No vehicle which has been derailed shall run between
            stations, until it has been examined and passed by a competent
            Train Examiner: Provided that in case of a derailment between
            stations, the Driver may, if the vehicle has been re-railed and
            if he considers it safe to do so, take such vehicle to the next
            station at a slow speed.

            (2) If a Guard or Station Master has reason to apprehend danger
            from the condition of any vehicle on a train before it can be
            inspected by a Train Examiner, the Driver shall be consulted,
            and if he so requires, the vehicle shall be detached from the
            train.

E. Precautions before Starting Train

      4.30 Driver and Guard to examine notices before starting

            Every Driver and Guard before starting with a train shall
            examine the notices issued for their guidance and ascertain
            therefrom whether there is anything requiring their special
            attention on that section of the railway over which they have
            to work.

      4.31. Examination of train before starting

            When a train is examined by a Train Examiner at a station, the
            Station Master shall not give permission to start the train
            until he has received a report from such examiner to the effect
            that the train is fit to proceed and has the prescribed brake
            power.

      4.32. Examination of train by Driver

            The Driver shall, before the commencement of the journey and
            after performing any shunting en route, ensure -

            (a) that his engine is in proper working order,

            (b) that the coupling between the engine and the train is
            properly secured, and

            (c) that the head light and marker lights as prescribed in
            sub-rule (1) of Rule 4.14 are in good order, and these are kept
            burning brightly, when required.

      4.33. Examination of single and multiple units by Driver

            When coupling single or multiple units or coaches of any such
            units together, the Driver shall be responsible for observing
            that all electrical couplings are properly made. After all
            couplings have been made, the Driver while taking over the
            complete train shall satisfy himself that the control and power
            apparatus and brakes of the complete train are in proper and
            prescribed working order.

      4.34. Duties of Guard when taking over charge of a train:- 

       The Guard when taking over charge of a train shall satisfy himself,
       before the train is despatched

            (a) that the train is properly coupled,

            (b) that the train is provided with the prescribed brake power,

            (c) that the train carries tail board or tail lamp and side
            lamps and that such lamps are lighted and kept burning
            brightly, when required.

            (d) that the appliance, if any, for communication between the
            Guard and the Driver, is in proper working orders, and

            (e) generally that, as far as he can ascertain, the train is in
            a state of efficiency for travelling.

      4.35. Starting of trains

          (1) A Driver shall not start his train from a station without the
          authority to proceed. Before starting the train, he shall satisfy
          himself that all correct fixed signals and, where necessary, hand
          signals are given and the line before him is clear of visible
          obstructions and the Guard has given the signal to start.

          (2) The Guard shall not give the signal for starting the train
          unless he has received the permission of the Station Master to
          start, in the manner prescribed by special instructions.

          (3) The Guard shall not give the signal for starting unless he
          has satisfied himself that, except in accordance with special
          instructions, no person is travelling in any compartment or
          vehicle not intended for the use of passengers.

          (4) The Station Master shall see, before he gives the Guard
          permission to start a train, that all is right for the train to
          proceed.

          (5) The permission of the Station master referred to in sub-rule
          (2) may be dispensed with in case of suburban train on such
          sections of a railway as may be specified by special
          instructions.

          (6) When permission of the Station Master to start has been
          dispensed with under sub-rule (5) or at a station where no
          Station Master is posted, the Guard shall see, before giving the
          starting signal, that all is right for the train to proceed.

    4.36. Guard to be in charge of train

          After the engine has been attached to a train, and during the
          journey, the Guard or (if there be more than one Guard) the Head
          Guard shall be in charge of the train in all matters affecting
          stopping or movement of the train for traffic purpose. In the
          case of any self-propelled vehicle, such as a motor coach without
          a trailer and unaccompanied by a Guard, the duties of the Guard
          shall devolve on the Driver.

    4.37. Subordination of Guards in station limits

          When a train is within station limits, the Guard shall be under
          the orders of the Station Master.

    4.38. Fireman and Assistant Drivers to obey Drivers

          The Firemen or Assistant Drivers shall obey the lawful orders of
          their Drivers in all particulars.

    4.39. Driver to obey certain orders

          After an engine has been attached to a train and during the
          journey, the Driver shall obey

                (a) the orders of the Guard, in all matters affecting the
                starting, stopping or movement of the train for traffic
                purposes, and

                (b) all orders given to him by the Station Master or any
                railway servant acting under special instructions, so far
                as the safe and proper working of his engine will admit.

F. Duties of Staff Working Trains during journey

    4.40. Driver and Fireman or Assistant Driver to keep a good look-out

          Every Driver shall keep a good look-out while the train is in
          motion, and every Fireman or Assistant Driver shall also do so
          when he is not necessarily otherwise engaged.

    4.41. Driver and Fireman or Assistant Driver to look back:-

          The Driver and the Fireman or the Assistant Driver shall look
          back frequently during the journey to see whether the train is
          following in a safe and proper manner.

    4.42. Exchange of signals between Driver, Guard and station staff:-

          (1) The Driver and the Guard of a train shall exchange signals
          with each other, at such times and in such manner as may be
          prescribed by special instructions.

          (2) The Driver and the Guard of a train shall, while running
          through a station, look out for and, except under special
          instructions, acknowledge the 'all right' signals which the
          Station Master and such other staff at the station as may be
          specified by special instructions shall give if the train is
          proceeding in a safe and proper manner. If the train is not
          proceeding in a safe and proper manner, the Station Master or the
          other staff shall exhibit a Stop hand signal, on receipt of which
          the Guard and the Driver shall take immediate steps to stop the
          train.

    4.43. Guard to keep a good look-out:-

          During the journey including halts at stations, every Guard shall
          keep a good look-out and satisfy himself from time to time that
          the tail board and brake-van lamps are in position and that all
          brake-van lamps, where required, are burning brightly, that the
          train is complete in every respect and is proceeding in a safe
          and proper manner.

          Note :- the term "brake-van lamp" includes "tail lamp".

    4.44. Trains held up at first Stop signal:-

          (1) When a train has, without an apparent cause, been kept
          standing at the first Stop signal for five minutes, the Driver
          shall sound the prescribed code of whistle to warn the Guard, and
          the brakesman shall proceed to the cabin or station to warn the
          Station master. If there is no brakesman, the Driver shall depute
          a Fireman or Assistant Driver to proceed to the cabin or station
          to warn the Station Master. The Brakesman or Fireman or Assistant
          Driver proceeding to the cabin or station shall show a Stop hand
          signal towards the station. The Guard shall, as soon as the train
          is stopped at the first Stop signal, check up that the tail board
          or tail lamp is correctly exhibited and shall maintain a vigilant
          attitude in rear of the train. After fifteen minutes or such less
          time as may be prescribed by special instructions, the Guard
          shall, irrespective of whether the cause is apparent or not,
          proceed to protect the rear of the train in accordance with
          instructions laid down in Rule 6.03. If in the meantime the
          signal is taken 'off', or the Driver receives the necessary
          authority to pass the signal in the 'on' position, he shall sound
          the prescribed code of whistle to recall the Guard and exchange
          hand signal with him before starting the train.

          (2) In the case of a train not accompanied by a Guard, these
          duties shall devolve on the Driver.

    4.45. Attracting attention of Driver:-

          (1) If any Guard sees reason to apprehend danger or considers it
          necessary for any reason to stop the train, he shall use his best
          endeavors to attract the attention of the Driver.

          (2) In the absence of other means of communications with the
          engine, a Guard desiring to attract the Driver's attention shall
          apply his hand brake sharply and as suddenly release it, and
          wherever possible, he shall reverse the side lamps to show red
          towards the engine.

          (3) When the attention of the Driver has been attracted, the
          necessary hand signal shall be shown.

          (4) If the train is fitted with continuous brake, the Guard may,
          in case of emergency, apply such brake gradually to stop the
          train.

    4.46. Assistance from Guard's hand brake :-

          When the Driver requires the assistance of Guard's hand brake, he
          shall sound the prescribed code of whistle, if necessary
          repeatedly, or, if a brake whistle is provided, sound such
          whistle, and shall also use other means of communication, if
          provided, between the Driver and the Guard.

    4.47. Application of Guard's hand brake:-

          (1) When the Driver sounds the prescribed code of whistle or the
          brake whistle, the Guards shall immediately apply their hand
          brakes.

          (2) When a train is travelling down a steep incline, the Guards
          shall, if necessary to steady the train, assist the Driver with
          their hand brakes.

    4.48. Permission of Guard to detach engine from train:-

          When a train has been brought to a stand outside station limits
          or anywhere on a grade, the Driver shall not detach his engine
          from the train without the permission of the Guard who, before
          giving such permission, shall satisfy himself that the van-brakes
          have been put on securely and take such other measures as may be
          necessary or prescribed by special instructions. Provided that
          detaching of engines from trains in such cases may be prohibited
          altogether under special instructions wherever considered
          necessary in the interest of safety.

    4.49. Starting and stopping of train:-

          The Driver shall start and stop his train carefully and without a
          jerk.

    4.50. Sounding of engine whistle:-

          (1) Except under special instructions, the Driver shall always
          sound the whistle of the engine according to the prescribed code
          of whistle-

              (a) before putting an engine in motion; 
              
              (b) when entering a tunnel; and
          
              (c) at such other times and places as may be prescribed by
              special instructions.

          (2) Engine whistle code shall be prescribed under special
          instructions.

    4.51. Bell signals between Driver and Guard

          When bell communication is provided between the Driver and the
          Guard of the train, bell signal code, as may be prescribed by
          special instructions, shall be used.

    4.52. Throwing out water, fire or cinders

          A Driver or Fireman shall not throw out water, fire or cinders,
          when passing through a station yard or tunnel, or when on a
          bridge.

    4.53. Hose or water crane

          After taking water from a tank or water column, the Driver shall
          see that the hose or arm is left clear of the line and, when it
          is provided with fastenings, properly secured.

    4.54. Passengers

          Every Guard shall give his best assistance to passengers
          entraining and detraining.

G. Duties of Staff on Arrival

    4.55. Shutting off power

          In stopping a train, the Driver shall determine where to shut off
          power by paying particular attention to the gradient, the state
          of the weather, the condition of the rails, the brake power and
          the length and weight of the train.

    4.56. Guard to see that train is stopped clear of fouling marks:-

          When a train comes to a stand at a station, the Guard shall see
          that, wherever possible, the last vehicle of his train has
          cleared the fouling marks of all points and crossings. If not, he
          shall inform the Station Master at once and exhibit Stop hand
          signal to prevent any movement on the fouled line.

    4.57. Detaching engine:-

          Wherever a train has been brought to a stand, and it is necessary
          for the engine, with or without vehicles, to be detached from the
          rest of the train, the Guard shall, before the train is
          uncoupled, satisfy himself that the van-brakes have been put on
          securely and take such other measures as may be prescribed by
          special instructions.

    4.58. Driver to see that train is stopped clear of fouling marks:-

          When a train comes to a stand at a station, the Driver shall see
          that, wherever possible, his engine is clear of the fouling marks
          of all points and crossings. If not, he shall take steps to
          inform the Station Master at once and exhibit Stop hand signal to
          prevent any movement on the fouled line.

    4.59. Moving of train carrying passengers after it has been stopped at
    a station:-

          When a train carrying passengers has been brought to a stand at a
          station, whether alongside, beyond, or short of the platform, the
          Driver shall not move it, except under orders of the Guard or to
          avert an accident.

    4.60. Guard not to leave trail till handed over

          No Guard shall leave his train until it has been properly handed
          over in accordance with special instructions.

    4.61. Driver not to leave engine when on duty

          No driver shall leave his working locomotive or his
          self-propelled vehicle when on duty, whether at a station or on a
          running line, except in case of absolute necessity and after a
          competent railway servant has been placed in charge of the
          locomotive or self-propelled vehicle. In the case of a
          self-propelled vehicle manned by a Driver only, a Driver may
          leave it when necessary, provided he has locked the cabs and has
          put the vehicle in low gear with the ignition witch in the off
          position and has screwed down and locked the hand brake.

H. Working of Material Trains

    4.62. Working of a material train in a block section

          A material train shall be worked only with the permission of
          Station Masters on each side and in accordance with special
          instructions.

    4.63. Workers on material train

          The Guard of a material train shall, before giving the signal to
          start, see that all the workers are on the train and warn them to
          sit down.

    4.64. Protection of material train when stabled:-

          (1) A material train shall not be stabled on a running line at a
          station, except in unavoidable circumstances.

          (2) When a material train is stabled at a station, it shall be
          protected in the following manner and the Station Master shall
          ensure that -

              (a) the vehicles of the material train have been properly
              secured and are not fouling any points or crossings,

              (b) all necessary points have been set against the line on
              which the material train is stabled and such points have been
              secured with clamps or bolts and cotters and padlocks, and

              (c) the keys of such padlocks are kept in his personal
              custody until the material train is ready to leave the siding
              or line.

          (3) The Guard shall not relinquish charge until he has satisfied
          himself that the material train has been protected as prescribed
          in this rule.

    4.65. Working of track maintenance machines

          Track laying or on track tamping or maintenance machines shall be
          worked only with the permission of the Station Master and in
          accordance with special instructions.

I. Private Engines and Vehicles

    4.66. Private engines and vehicles

          No engine or other vehicle, which are the property of a private
          owner, shall be allowed to enter upon the railway, except in
          accordance with special instructions.
            


The material on this page is extracted from Indian Railways General Rules (Open Lines), 1976, published by the Government of India.
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